Sunday, October 30, 2011

Clans of Tamilakam (Tamil Nadu)

The limits of Tamilakam were from Venkata Hill in the North, to Cape Comorin in the South, and from the Bay of Bengal in the East, to the Arabian Sea in the West. Malayalam had not formed into a separate dialect at this period, and only one language, Tamil, was spoken from the Eastern to the Western Sea.

Villavar - Bowmen (Dravidian word vil meaning a bow)
Minavar - Fishermen (from the Dravidian meen, a fish)
Vadukar tribe - Lived north of Venkatam
Karaiyar (Parathavar, Naga tribe) - Eastern coast extending from Cape Cumari who subsisted by fishing
Veduvar (Vedar) - Capital of this province was Nagai or Naga-paddinam
Aruvalar (Kurumbar) - A nomadic tribe
Vellala tribe - Chola king Karikalan, who first settle the aruvalar wandering tribes
Nagas - Very numerous and civilized race (Arjuna married first Ulipi, the daughter of a Naga king)
Maravar (Naga tribe) - Most powerful and warlike tribe
Kallar (Einar Naga tribe) - Descendants of Eyinar, most lawless of Naga tribes
Maarar - Chief of this tribe was ever afterwards knows as Palayan or 'the ancient' being the most ancient, of the Tamil settlers in the southern part of India
Maranmar tribe (Pandiya Kingdom) - Conquered Burmah before the first century A.D (known as Maramma-desa)
Thirayar tribe (Chola Kingdom) - Sea Kings
Vanavar (Celestials, Chera Kingdom) - Natives of mountainous region in the North of Bengal. The Chera kings belonged to this tribe and called themselves Vanavar
Kosar (Koshans) - Leaders of the four tribes of Yuh-chi (Asioi, Pasianoi, Tocharoi and Sakarauloi)

As the Tamil immigrants came into Southern India at distant intervals of time and in separate tribes, and were fewer in number than the aboriginal Nagas and Dravidians, they had to adopt the ancient Dravidian language, and in course of time, they modified and refined it into the language known as Tamil.

The peculiar letter Rzha found in the Tamil alphabet which does not occur in the other Dravidian or Sanskrit languages, was doubtless brought in by the Tamil immigrants. This letter occurs only in some of the Thibetian languages. It indicates most clearly that the primitive home of the Tamil immigrants must have been in the Thibetian pleatu.

Citation

The Tamils eighteen hundred (1800) years ago

By V. Kanakasabhai
Harvard College Library - Published by Higginbotham & Co

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  28. VILLAVAR AND BANAS

    Pandya is the title of Villavar rulers as well as Banas. Bana kingdoms were present throughout India. Most of the India were ruled by Bana rulers. Throughout India numerous places called Banpur which were capitals of Banas exist. Banas were called as Banasura also.

    Banas were the the Northern cousins of Villavar who ruled Kerala and Tamilnadu. In Karnataka and Andhra also was ruled by Banas.

    VILLAVAR SUBGROUPS

    1. Villavar

    2. Malayar

    3. Vanavar

    The seagoing cousins of Villavar were called Meenavar

    4. Meenavar

    Pandyas emerged from all these subgroups in the ancient times. They also used the flag of the sub clans. For eg.

    1. Pandyan from Villavar clan was called Sarangadwaja Pandyan. He carried a Bow-arrow flag.

    2. Pandyan from Malayar clan was called Malayadwaja Pandyan. He carried a flag with Hill insignia.

    3. Pandyan from Vanavar subclan carried a Bow-arrow or Tiger or Tree flag.

    4. Pandyan from Meenavar clan carried a fish flag and called himself Meenavan.

    In the laterdays all the Villavar clans merged to form Nadalvar clans. Ancient Meenavar clan also merged with Villavar and Nadalvar clans.

    Laterdays Nagas who migrated from North became fishermen in south. They are not ethnically related to Villavar-Meenavar clans.

    VILLAVAR TITLES

    Villavar, Nadalvar, Nadar, Santar, Chanar, Shanar, Charnnavar, Chantrahar, Chandar Perumbanar, Panickar, Thiruppappu, Kavara (Kavurayar), Illam, Kiriyam, Kana, Mara Nadar, Nattathi, Pandiyakula Kshatriya, Nelamakkarar etc.

    Ancient Pandyan dynasty was split into three kingdoms.

    1. Chera dynasty.

    2. Chola dynasty

    3. Pandyan dynasty

    All were supported by Villavars.

    ORDER OF IMPORTANCE

    1. Chera Kingdom

    Villavar
    Malaiyar
    Vanavar
    Iyakkar

    2. Pandian Empire

    Villavar
    Meenavar
    Vanavar
    Malaiyar

    3. Chola Empire

    Vanavar
    Villavar
    Malaiyar

    BANA AND MEENA

    In the Northern India Villavar were known as Banas and Bhils. Meenavar were known as Meena or Matsya.

    Early residents of Indus Valley and Gangetic plains were Bana and Meena clans.

    King Virata who gave refuge to Pandavas for one year was a Matsya - Meena ruler.

    Despite their Asura status Banas were invited to all Swayamvaras.

    ASSAM BANA KINGDOM

    A Bana kingdom called Asura Kingdom with capital at Sonitpur ruled Assam during ancient times. Throughout India Bana-Meena and Villavar-Meenavar kingdoms existed until the end of middle ages.

    MAHABALI

    Banas and Villavar considered King Mahabali as their ancestor. Numerous kings with Mahabali title ruled India. Villavars called their ancestor Mahabali as Maveli.

    ONAM
    Onam festival celebrates the return of king Mahabali who had ruled Kerala every year. The places Mavelikkara, Mahabalipuram both named after Mahabali.

    MAVELI
    One of the titles of Pandyas were Maveli. Pandyas rivals the Banas were also called Maveli Vanathi Rayar.

    DANAVA DAITYA

    Ancient Danavas and Daityas could be Bana subgroup of Indus Valley. The king of Daityas was called Mahabali. The first Dams in India were built by Banas on the Indus river four thousand years ago.

    HIRANYAGARBHA CEREMONY

    Both Villavars and Banas performed Hiranyagarbha ceremony. In Hiranyagarbha ceremony the Pandya king simulated to emerge from the golden womb of King Hiranya. Hiranya was the ancestor of Mahabali.

    ReplyDelete
  29. VILLAVAR AND BANAS


    WAR AGAINST NAGAS

    Kalithokai an ancient Tamil literature describes a great war fought between combined armies of Villavar Meenavar against Nagas. In that war Villavar Meenavar were defeated and Nagas occupied central India.

    NAGA MIGRATION TO SOUTH

    Various clans of Nagas migrated to south India and Srilanka especially to coastal areas.

    1. Varunakulathor
    2. Guhankulathor
    3. Kurukalathor
    4. Paradavar
    5. Kalabhras
    6. Ahichatram Nagas

    These Nagas were the main enemies of Villavars. Nagas sided with Delhi Sultanate, Vijayanagara Naickars and Europeans colonial rulers and opposed Villavars, leading to Villavar downfall.

    KARNATAKA'S BANA AND VILLAVAR ENMITY

    Despite having common origins Karnataka's Banas and Villavar were enemies. Kerala was occupied by Banas from Alupas Pandyan Kingdom of Tulunadu (Banapperumal) in 1120 AD.

    Balija Naickers occupied Tamilnadu in 1377 AD.
    Chola Pandyan kingdoms of Villavar were occupied by Balija Naickars (Bana descendents of Mahabali, Banajigas) of Vijayanagara empire.

    END OF VILLAVARS

    The invasion of Malik Kafur in 1310 led to the defeat of Pandyan dynasty. Villavars were massacred and all the three Tamil kingdoms came to an end.

    KARNATAKAS PANDYAN KINGDOMS

    Karnataka had many Banappandyan kingdoms

    1. Alupa Pandyan kingdom
    2. Uchangi Pandyan Kingdom
    3. Santara Pandyan kingdom
    4. Nurumpada Pandyan kingdom.

    Karnataka Pandyans used Kulasekhara title also.

    ANDHRAPRADESH

    Bana kingdoms of Andhra

    1. Bana kingdom
    2. Vijayanagara kingdom.

    FLAGS OF BANAS

    Early
    1. Double Fish
    2. Bow-Arrow

    Late
    1. Bull Crest
    2. Monkey crest (Vanara dwaja)
    3. Conch
    4. Wheel
    5. Eagle

    ReplyDelete
  30. VILLAVAR AND BANAS

    BANA AND MEENA

    In the Northern India Villavar were known as Banas and Bhils. Meenavar were known as Meena or Matsya.

    MEENA

    Meena clans of Rajasthan mixed with Bhil clans to form Bhil-Meena dynasties. Meena ruled Rajastan until 1030 AD. Alan Singh Meena Chanda was the last great ruler.

    BANAS

    A Bana dynasty was founded by Pallavas at southern Kosala kingdom at Chatisgarh and Odisha in 731 AD with capital at Pali. Vikramaditya I Jayameru was the last king.

    PANDYA DYNASTY OF TIKAMGARH

    Bana clans with Pandya title ruled from Kundeshwar as capital in Madhyapradesh.

    BANA TRADERS

    Banas transformed themselves into successful business community. Balijas formed various trade guilds such as Anchu Vannam and Manigramam and controlled trade. This trader-Warriors were the Balija Naickers. Balija closely resembled German Hanseatic League. Balijas belonged to the Bana kingdom (Vaduga country) of Andhrapradesh.

    Conclusion

    Thus Pandyas are not present in Tamilnadu alone. All the Pandyans mentioned in Mahabharatham are not from Tamilakam alone. Some Pandyans supported Pandavas while others supported Kauvravas. Banappandiyans ruled whole of India. Some Banas used Pandya title . Others did not use Pandyan title. With Bana mixture various kingdoms emerged. North Indian Bana kingdoms declined after the invasions of barbaric foreign invaders such as Saka and Huna.

    ________________________________________________

    Villavar Malayar Vanavar Sangam age coin.

    https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Q5Ebqb5XTE4/W1LYuq2vnrI/AAAAAAAAEH4/1b-_GJRcWWoS9FdoOaLnvyUiGU3_BJJSQCLcBGAs/s1600/new.png

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  31. வில்லவர் மற்றும் பாணர்
    ____________________________________

    பாண்டிய என்பது வில்லவர் மற்றும் பாண ஆட்சியாளர்களின பட்டமாகும். இந்தியா முழுவதும் பாணர்கள் அரசாண்டனர். இந்தியாவின் பெரும்பகுதி பாண ஆட்சியாளர்களால் ஆளப்பட்டது. இந்தியா முழுவதும் பாண்பூர் எனப்படும் ஏராளமான இடங்கள் உள்ளன. இவை பண்டைய பாணர்களின் தலைநகரங்கள் ஆகும். பாணர்கள் பாணாசுரா என்றும் அழைக்கப்பட்டனர்.

    கேரளா மற்றும் தமிழ்நாட்டை ஆண்ட வில்லவரின் வடக்கு உறவினர்கள் பாணர்கள் ஆவர். கர்நாடகாவிலும் ஆந்திராவிலும் பாணர்கள் ஆண்டனர்.

    வில்லவர் குலங்கள்

    1. வில்லவர்
    2. மலையர்
    3. வானவர்

    வில்லவரின் கடலோர உறவினர்கள் மீனவர் என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டனர்

    4. மீனவர்

    பண்டைய காலங்களில் இந்த அனைத்து துணைப்பிரிவுகளிலிருந்தும் பாண்டியர்கள் தோன்றினர். அவர்கள் துணை குலங்களின் கொடியையும் பயன்படுத்தினர். உதாரணத்திற்கு

    1. வில்லவர் குலத்தைச் சேர்ந்த பாண்டியன் சாரங்கத்வஜ பாண்டியன் என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டார். அவர் ஒரு வில் மற்றும் அம்பு அடையாளமுள்ள கொடியை சுமந்தார்.

    2. மலையர் குலத்தைச் சேர்ந்த பாண்டியன் மலையத்வஜ பாண்டியன் என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டார். அவர் மலை சின்னத்துடன் ஒரு கொடியை ஏந்தினார்.

    3. வானவர் துணைப்பிரிவைச் சேர்ந்த பாண்டியன் ஒரு வில்-அம்பு அல்லது புலி அல்லது மரம் கொடியை ஏந்திச் சென்றார்.

    4. மீனவர் குலத்தைச் சேர்ந்த பாண்டியன் ஒரு மீன் கொடியை ஏந்திச்சென்று தன்னை மீனவன் என்று அழைத்துக் கொண்டார்.

    பிற்காலத்தில் அனைத்து வில்லவர் குலங்களும் ஒன்றிணைந்து நாடாள்வார் குலங்களை உருவாக்கின. பண்டைய மீனவர் குலமும் வில்லவர் மற்றும் நாடாள்வார் குலங்களுடன் இணைந்தது.


    பிற்காலத்தில் வடக்கிலிருந்து குடிபெயர்ந்த நாகர்கள் தென் நாடுகளில் மீனவர்களாக மாறினர். அவர் வில்லவர்-மீனவர் குலங்களுடன் இனரீதியாக தொடர்புடையவர் அல்லர்.

    வில்லவர் பட்டங்கள்
    ______________________________________

    வில்லவர், நாடாள்வார், நாடார், சான்றார், சாணார், சண்ணார், சார்ந்நவர், சான்றகர், சாண்டார் பெரும்பாணர், பணிக்கர், திருப்பார்ப்பு, கவரா (காவுராயர்), இல்லம், கிரியம், கண நாடார், மாற நாடார், நட்டாத்தி, பாண்டியகுல ஷத்திரியர் போன்றவை.

    பண்டைய பாண்டிய ராஜ்யம் மூன்று ராஜ்யங்களாகப் பிரிக்கப்பட்டது.

    1. சேர வம்சம்.
    2. சோழ வம்சம்
    3. பாண்டியன் வம்சம்

    அனைத்து ராஜ்யங்களையும் வில்லவர்கள் ஆதரித்தனர்.

    முக்கியத்துவத்தின் ஒழுங்கு

    1. சேர இராச்சியம்

    வில்லவர்
    மலையர்
    வானவர்
    இயக்கர்

    2. பாண்டியன் பேரரசு

    வில்லவர்
    மீனவர்
    வானவர்
    மலையர்

    3. சோழப் பேரரசு

    வானவர்
    வில்லவர்
    மலையர்

    பாணா மற்றும் மீனா
    _____________________________________

    வட இந்தியாவில் வில்லவர் பாணா மற்றும் பில் என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டனர். மீனவர், மீனா அல்லது மத்ஸ்யா என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டனர். சிந்து சமவெளி மற்றும் கங்கை சமவெளிகளில் ஆரம்பத்தில் வசித்தவர்கள் பாணா மற்றும் மீனா குலங்கள் ஆவர்.

    பாண்டவர்களுக்கு ஒரு வருட காலம் அடைக்கலம் கொடுத்த விராட மன்னர் ஒரு மத்ஸ்யா - மீனா ஆட்சியாளர் ஆவார்.

    பாண மன்னர்களுக்கு அசுர அந்தஸ்து இருந்தபோதிலும் அவர்கள் அனைத்து சுயம்வரங்களுக்கும் அழைக்கப்பட்டனர்.

    அசாம்

    சோனித்பூரில் தலைநகருடன் அசுரா இராச்சியம் என்று அழைக்கப்பட்ட ஒரு பாண இராச்சியம் பண்டைய காலங்களில் அசாமை ஆட்சி செய்தது.

    இந்தியா முழுவதும் பாணா-மீனா மற்றும் வில்லவர்-மீனவர் இராச்சியங்கள் கி.பி .1500 வரை, நடுக்காலம், முடிவடையும் வரை இருந்தன.

    மஹாபலி

    பாணர் மற்றும் வில்லவர் மன்னர் மகாபாலியை தங்கள் மூதாதையராக கருதினர். மகாபலி பட்டத்துடன் கூடிய ஏராளமான மன்னர்கள் இந்தியாவை ஆண்டனர்.

    வில்லவர்கள் தங்கள் மூதாதையர் மகாபலியை மாவேலி என்று அழைத்தனர்.

    ஓணம் பண்டிகை

    ஓணம் பண்டிகை ஒவ்வொரு ஆண்டும் கேரளாவை ஆண்ட மகாபலி மன்னர் திரும்பி வரும் நாளில் கொண்டாடப்படுகிறது. மாவேலிக்கரை, மகாபலிபுரம் ஆகிய இரு இடங்களும் மகாபலியின் பெயரிடப்பட்டுள்ளன.

    பாண்டியர்களின் பட்டங்களில் ஒன்று மாவேலி. பாண்டியர்களின் எதிராளிகளாகிய பாணர்களும் மாவேலி வாணாதி ராயர் என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டனர்.

    சிநது சமவெளியில் தானவர் தைத்யர்(திதியர்)

    பண்டைய தானவ (தனு=வில்) மற்றும் தைத்ய குலங்கள் சிந்து சமவெளியிலுள்ள பாணர்களின் துணைப்பிரிவுகளாக இருந்திருக்கலாம். தைத்யரின் மன்னர் மகாபலி என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டார்.

    இந்தியாவில் முதல் அணைகள், ஏறத்தாழ நான்காயிரம் ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்பு சிந்து நதியில் பாண குலத்தினரால் கட்டப்பட்டன.

    ஹிரண்யகர்பா சடங்கு

    வில்லவர்கள் மற்றும் பாணர் இருவரும் ஹிரண்யகர்பா விழாவை நிகழ்த்தினர். ஹிரண்யகர்பா சடங்கி்ல் பாண்டிய மன்னர் ஹிரண்ய மன்னரின் தங்க வயிற்றில் இருந்து வெளிவருவதை உருவகப்படுத்தினார்.
    ஹிரண்யகசிபு மகாபலியின் மூதாதையர் ஆவார்.

    ReplyDelete
  32. வில்லவர் மற்றும் பாணர்


    நாகர்களுக்கு எதிராக போர்
    __________________________________________

    கலித்தொகை என்ற ஒரு பண்டைய தமிழ் இலக்கியம் நாகர்களுக்கும் வில்லவர் -மீனவர்களின் ஒருங்கிணைந்த படைகளுக்கும் இடையே நடந்த ஒரு பெரிய போரை விவரிக்கிறது. அந்தப் போரில் வில்லவர்-மீனவர் தோற்கடிக்கப்பட்டு நாகர்கள் மத்திய இந்தியாவை ஆக்கிரமித்தனர்.

    நாகர்களின் தெற்கு நோக்கி இடம்பெயர்வு

    நாகர்களின் பல்வேறு குலங்கள் தென்னிந்தியா மற்றும் ஸ்ரீலங்காவுக்கு குறிப்பாக கடலோர பகுதிகளுக்கு குடிபெயர்ந்தனர்.

    1. வருணகுலத்தோர்
    2. குகன்குலத்தோர்
    3. கவுரவகுலத்தோர்
    4. பரதவர்
    5. களப்பிரர்கள்
    6. அஹிச்சத்ரம் நாகர்கள்

    இந்த நாகர்கள் வில்லவர்களின் முக்கிய எதிரிகள் ஆவர். நாகர்கள் டெல்லி சுல்தானேட், விஜயநகர நாயக்கர்கள் மற்றும் ஐரோப்பியர்கள் காலனித்துவ ஆட்சியாளர்களுடன் கூடி பக்கபலமாக இருந்து வில்லவர்களை எதிர்த்தனர், இது வில்லவர் வீழ்ச்சிக்கு வழிவகுத்தது.

    கர்நாடகாவின் பாணர்களின் பகை
    _________________________________________

    பொதுவான தோற்றம் இருந்தபோதிலும் கர்நாடகாவின் பாணர்கள் வில்லவர்களுக்கு எதிரிகளாயிருந்தனர்.

    கி.பி 1120 இல் கேரளாவை துளுநாடு ஆளுப அரசு பாண்டியன் இராச்சியத்தைச் சேர்ந்த பாணப்பெருமாள் அராபியர்களின் உதவியுடன் ஆக்கிரமித்தார்.

    கி.பி 1377 இல் பலிஜா நாயக்கர்கள் தமிழ்நாட்டை ஆக்கிரமித்தனர். வில்லவரின் சேர சோழ பாண்டியன் இராச்சியங்கள் விஜயநகர சாம்ராஜ்யத்தின் பலிஜா நாயக்கர்களால் (பாணாஜிகா, ஐந்நூற்றுவர் வளஞ்சியர் என்னும் மகாபலி பாணரின் சந்ததியினர்) அழிக்கப்பட்டன.

    வில்லவர்களின் முடிவு

    1310 இல் மாலிக் கபூரின் படையெடுப்பு பாண்டிய வம்சத்தின் தோல்விக்கு வழிவகுத்தது. வில்லவர்கள் படுகொலை செய்யப்பட்டனர், மேலும் மூன்று தமிழ் ராஜ்யங்களும் முடிவுக்கு வந்தன.

    கர்நாடகாவின் பாண்டியன் ராஜ்யங்கள்
    __________________________________________

    கர்நாடகாவில் பல பாணப்பாண்டியன் ராஜ்யங்கள் இருந்தன

    1. ஆலுபா பாண்டியன் இராச்சியம்
    2. உச்சாங்கி பாண்டியன் இராச்சியம்
    3. சான்றாரா பாண்டியன் இராச்சியம்
    4. நூறும்பாடா பாண்டியன் இராச்சியம்.

    கர்நாடக பாண்டியர்கள் குலசேகர பட்டத்தையும் பயன்படுத்தினர். நாடாவா, நாடாவரு, நாடோர், பில்லவா, சான்றாரா பட்டங்களையும் கொண்டவர்கள்.

    ஆந்திரபிரதேச பாணர்கள்

    ஆந்திராவின் பாண ராஜ்யங்கள்

    1. பாண இராச்சியம்
    2. விஜயநகர இராச்சியம்.

    பலிஜா, வாணாதிராஜா, வாணாதிராயர், வன்னியர், கவரா, சமரகோலாகலன் என்பவை வடுக பாணர்களின் பட்டங்களாகும்.

    பாண வம்சத்தின் கொடிகள்
    _________________________________________

    முற்காலம்
    1. இரட்டை மீன்
    2. வில்-அம்பு

    பிற்காலம்
    1. காளைக்கொடி
    2. வானரக்கொடி
    3. சங்கு
    4. சக்கரம்
    5. கழுகு

    ReplyDelete
  33. வில்லவர் மற்றும் பாணர்

    பாணா வம்சம் மற்றும் மீனா வம்சம்

    வட இந்தியாவில் வில்லவர் பாணா மற்றும் பில் என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டனர். மீனவர் மீனா அல்லது மத்ஸ்யா என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டனர்.

    மீனா வம்சம்
    ___________________________________

    ராஜஸ்தானின் மீனா குலங்கள் பில் குலங்களுடன் கலந்து பில்-மீன வம்சங்களை உருவாக்கின. மீனா வம்சம் ராஜஸ்தானை கிமு 1030 வரை ஆட்சி செய்தது. ஆலன் சிங் சான்ட மீனா கடைசி சிறந்த ஆட்சியாளராக இருந்தார்.

    சத்தீஸ்கர் பாண இராச்சியம்

    பல்லவர்கள் ஒரு பாண இராச்சியத்தை கி.பி 731 இல் சத்தீஸ்கர் மற்றும் ஒடிசாவில் உள்ள தெற்கு கோசல இராச்சியத்தில் நிறுவினர். பாலி தலைநகரமாக ஆண்ட விக்ரமாதித்யா ஜெயமேரு கடைசி மன்னர்.

    திக்கம்கரின் பாண்டிய வம்சம்

    பாண்டியா பட்டமுள்ள பாணர் குண்டேஷ்வர் தலைநகராக வைத்து மத்தியப்பிரதேசத்தை ஆட்சி புரிந்தனர்.

    பாண வர்த்தகர்கள்

    இடைக்காலத்தில் பாணர்கள் தங்களை ஒரு வெற்றிகரமான வணிக சமூகமாக மாற்றிக் கொண்டனர். பலிஜாக்கள் அஞ்சு வண்ணம் மற்றும் மணிகிராம் போன்ற பல்வேறு வர்த்தக குழுக்களை உருவாக்கி வர்த்தகத்தை கட்டுப்படுத்தினர். இந்த வர்த்தகர்-போர்வீரர்கள் பலிஜா நாயக்கர்கள்(வளஞ்சியர்கள்) ஆவர்.
    பலிஜாக்கள் ஆந்திரப்பிரதேசத்தின் பாண இராச்சியத்தைச் சேர்ந்தவர்கள் (வடுக நாடு).

    பலிஜா வர்த்தக குழுக்கள் ஜெர்மன் ஹான்ஸியாடிக் லீக்கை நெருக்கமாக ஒத்திருந்தனர்.

    முடிவுரை
    ____________________________________________

    இதனால் பாண்டியர்கள் தமிழ்நாட்டில் மட்டும் உள்ளவர்கள் இல்லை. மகாபாரதத்தில் குறிப்பிடப்பட்டுள்ள அனைத்து பாண்டியர்களும் தமிழகத்தைச் சேர்ந்தவர்கள் அல்ல. சில பாண்டியர்கள் பாண்டவர்களை ஆதரித்தனர், மற்றவர்கள் கவுரவரை ஆதரித்தனர். பாணப்பாண்டியர்கள் இந்தியா முழுவதையும் ஆட்சி செய்தனர். சில பாணர்கள் பாண்டிய பட்டத்தை பயன்படுத்தினர். மற்றவர்கள் பாண்டியன் பட்டத்தை பயன்படுத்தவில்லை.
    பாணர் கலவையுடன் பல்வேறு ராஜ்யங்கள் தோன்றின.

    சாகர் மற்றும் ஹூணர் போன்ற காட்டுமிராண்டித்தனமான வெளிநாட்டு படையெடுப்பாளர்களின் படையெடுப்புகளுக்குப் பிறகு பல வட இந்திய பாண ராஜ்யங்களும் வீழ்ச்சியடைந்தன.

    ________________________________________________

    வில்லவர் மலையர் வானவர் சங்ககால நாணயம்.
    வில்-அம்பு மலை மற்றும் மரம் சின்னம்

    https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Q5Ebqb5XTE4/W1LYuq2vnrI/AAAAAAAAEH4/1b-_GJRcWWoS9FdoOaLnvyUiGU3_BJJSQCLcBGAs/s1600/new.png

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  34. The Chera, Chola and Pandyan Kingdoms were founded by Villavar-Meenavar people in prehistory. In very ancient times only Pandyan kingdom was there. Then it broke up to form the Chera Chola Pandyan kingdoms.

    Villavar subclans were

    1. Villavar
    2. Malayar
    3. Vanavar

    and their sea going cousins

    4. Meenavar

    All these merged to form Nadalvar clans.
    So modern Villavar people is the result of merger of all the subgroups.


    ____________________________________________

    NAGAS

    Kalithokai mention an ancient war fought between Villavar-Meenavar against Nagas in which Villavar-Meenavar were defeated and lost Central India. Nagas then occupied central India and started migrating to the southern India.

    Nagas were northern migrants from Gangetic belt in the ancient times. According to Kanagasabai Pillai Avarhal in his book Tamils 1800 years ago says that Maravar, Eyinar, Aruvalar, Oviar, Oliar and Paradavar were Nagas who migrated to south India and settled down.

    MURGUHAR

    Mattakalappu Manmiyam written in the sixteenth century says that from the three tribes Kalingar, Vangar and Singar who descended from Guhan the mythical boat man at Sarayu river branch of Ganges.

    The three Guhan tribes were called Murguhar or Mukkulathor. The branches of Murguhar were

    1. Murguhar or Mukkuvar
    2. Maravar
    3. Kalingar-Sinhalese.

    It also says that the Murguhar occupied Srilanka and Coastal India and Ramnad. Mattakalappu manmiyam also said that Ramnad was also called Northern Srilanka.

    During colonial period in the Sinhalese ruled Mattakalappu
    Mukkuvar occupied highest posts such as Governor of Mattakalappu Podi. They had all the privileges of Kalingan. aristocracy. It is because of their Murguhar ancestry

    Similarly Maravas were appointed as Vanniya regional administrators of Mattakalappu. Maravas also Murguhars who were Nagas migrated to Kalinga,Vanga Singa kingdoms and from there they came to Tamilnadu and Srilanka.


    In Srilankan Mukkulator Mukkuvar Kalingar and Maravar are included.

    But in Indian Mukkulathor Mukkuvar are not added.
    Instead Marava, Kalabhra and Tulu agriculturists form the Mukkulathor.

    MARAVA
    In Mattakalappu Manmiyam it is said that Marava were fishermen in Ganges when Lord Srirama happen to see them. Lord Srirama gave them jobs in the Ayodhya kingdom.
    Maravas accompanied the Vanara armies in the invasion of Srilanka.
    Mattakalappu manmiyam says that Maravas defeated the Arakkar dynasty. Then Maravas came and settled in the south India.

    KALABHRAS
    Kallar descend from Kalabhras. Vellala belong to Kalabhra aristocracy called Kalappalar.
    Kallars might have joined the Madurai Sultanate. In Kallar marriages sister of the Groom ties the Thali not the groom.
    Kallar Thalis displayed Moon phase and a star. Until recently though Hindus, Piramalai Kallars were doing circumcision.

    Naga Marava, Kalabhra, and Tuluva Vellala people are not related to Chera Chola Pandyan dynasties.

    ReplyDelete
  35. MATTAKALAPPU MANMIYAM

    மறவர் கங்கை நதியில் மீனவர்களாக இருந்தனர்
    ______________________________________________

    வீரனென்னும் பரதிகுல யிரகுமுன்னாள்வேட்டை சென்றெங்கள் குலமெல்லிதன்னைமாரனென்றணைத்தீன்ற சவலையர்க்குவருஇரகு நாடனென நாமமிட்டுபூருவத்தி லயோத்தி யுரிமையீந்துபோன பின்னர் சிறிராமர் துணைவராகிதீரரென்னுமரக்கர்குலம் வேரறுத்தசிவ மறவர்குலம் நானும் வரிசைகேட்டேன்
    (மட்டகளப்பு மான்மியம்)

    மறவர்கள் அரக்கர் குலத்தை தோற்கடித்தனர்
    ______________________________________________

    அயோத்தி - அயோத்தியைச் சேர்ந்த இரகுவிற் கும் மறவர் குலப் பெண்ணுக்கும் பிறந்த மக்கள். அயோத்தியுரிமை யைப் பெற்றுப் பின் இராமர் துணை வராகி அரக்கர்குலம் வேரறுத்தனர். இவர்களே சிவமறவர்குலம் எனப் பங்குபெற்றனர்

    மறவர் கங்கை மற்றும் அயோத்தி பகுதியைச் சேர்ந்தவர்கள்
    ______________________________________________

    தேடறிய சிவனடியில் செறிந்தெழுந்த
    திருக்கங்கை வதன மாரிருந்து வாழ்ந்தார் மாடேறு மீசனடி துதித்திடைய மக்களென்று
    பண்டு பண்டு வரிசை பெற்றார்"
    என்பர். அயோத்தி என்ற மறவர்,
    'சிவமறவர்குலம் நானும் வரிசை கோட்டேன்
    (மட்டக்களப்பு மான்மியம்)

    முற்குகர் ஸ்ரீலங்கா மீது படையெடுத்தனர்
    ______________________________________________

    இலங்கையின் வனப்பைக் கேள்வியுற்று வடஇந்தியாவிலே அயோத்தியினின்றும் முற்குகர் இலங்கைக்குப் படையெடுத்து வந்தனர். அவர்கள் இலங்கையின் கீழ்ப்பாகம் வந்த போது ஒரு சதுப்பேரி காணப்பட்டது. அச்சதுப்பேரியினூடே தமது ஓடத்தைச் செலுத்தினர். அப்போது வழியில் மண்செறிந்த ஓர் முனை எனும் குறுகலாகவிருந்தமையால் அதற்கு மண்முனை எனும் பெயரிட்டனர். அப்பாற் தென்திசைநோக்கிப் புறப்பட்டனர். வாவி எல்லையில் ஓடம் சென்றதும் அப்பாற்செல்ல வழியில்லாமைகண்டு “இதுமட்டும மட்டடா மட்டக்களப்படா” (இந்தக் களப்பு இதுவரையுந்தான்) எனப் பகர்ந்து அந்தத்திலே மட்டக்களப்பென்னும் நாமத்தைச் சூட்டி ஒரு கிராமத்தை அரணாக்கினர்.
    (மட்டக்களப்பு மான்மியம்)

    முக்குலத்தவர்
    ______________________________________________

    கண்டிக்கும் மட்டக்களப்பு அரசுவருமானத்தில் மூன்றிலொன்று கொடுக்கும்படி கண்டி அரசனிடம் சம்மதமுற்றுக் கலிபிறந்து நாலாயிரத்தெண்ணூற்றுப்பத்தாம் வருஷம் மட்டக்களப்பை ஒல்லாந்தருக்கு ஒப்புக்கொடுத்தனர். ஒல்லாந்தர், காலிங்கர், வங்கர். சிங்கர் என்னும் முக்குலத்தவரையும் நிலைமைகளாய் வகுத்தனர். இருபது வருஷம் அரசு செய்யும் போது இந்த முக்குலத்தவரிலும் நம்பிக்கை இல்லாதவராய்த் தங்கள் இராசதானம் என்னும் பண்ணை நாட்டிலிருந்து பஸ்கோலென்பவனை இரச்சிய முதலியாய் அனுப்பினர்.(மட்டக்களப்பு மான்மியம்)

    முதல் சிங்கள மன்னரான விஜய சிங்காவின் மூதாதையர்களில் ஒருவரான மறவர்
    ______________________________________________

    விசயுனுடைய காலமும் அவர் முதாதை கலிங்கர். கங்கர். சிங்கர், மறவர் மறாட்டியர் என்னும் ஐந்து அரசர்களுடைய வம்சவழியும் அவரவர்கள் சந்ததிகள் இந்நாட்டில் கலிங்கதேசம் வங்கதேசம் சிங்கபுரம் அசோககிரி சோழநாடு இராமநாடு மலையாளம் இவையிலிருந்து குடியேறி அரசாண்டு முதன்மை பெற்றுச் சிறை தளங்களோடு வாழ்ந்து வந்த சரித்திரங்களையும் கூறவேண்டும்.
    (மட்டக்களப்பு மான்மியம்)

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  36. Extremely overall quite fascinating post. I was searching for this sort of data and delighted in perusing this one. Continue posting. A debt of gratitude is in order for sharing. data analytics course in delhi

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  37. NAGA

    Nagas were basically a north Indian people but ethnically different from Aryans. Nagas were a subordinate people of Aryans. Nagas, Aryans and Dravidians are three different races of India.

    HINDI

    Hindi is also known as Devanagari was the language of Deva(Aryan) and Naga people.

    INDRA

    Indra was the king of Devas was elected mostly from Aryan people. But some Nagas were also elected as King of Devanagari people. Nahusha was a prihistorical Naga king who attained Indra status.

    NAHUSHA

    Nahusha was elected as a Indra as the reigning Indra was removed by a curse. Nahusha ruled from Pratishthana, modern Paithan in Aurangabad district, Maharashtra. This may correspond to the period of occupation of central india by Nagas as told in Kalithokai. Son of Nahusha was Yayati. Sons of Yayati were Puru, ancestor of the Pandavas and Kauravas and Yadu, ancestor of Yadavas. Yadus had a tribal union with the Turvasha tribe, and were frequently described together. Thus Pandavas Kauravas and Yadhava might descend from Naga king Nahusha.

    DESCENDENTS OF INDRA

    The Naga migrants from Gangetic river area to South India also claim descendency from Indra and Ahalya.

    Nahusha → Yayati
    Yayati → Puru dynasty
    Puru dynasty → Kuru dynasty + Yadava dynasty
    kuru dynasty → Kauravas+ Bharatha dynasty

    DESCENDENTS OF KAURAVA

    It is customary for the Naga migrants to south India and Srilanka to claim as descendants of Kaurava or Kurukula or Bharathakula. Karaiyar, Konda Karavas and other fishernen communities claim that they are descendents of Kauravas.. In India these Nagas pretend to be Tamils but in Sinhalese territories they always identify themselves as descendents of Kaurava or Bharatha.

    WAR AGAINST NAGAS

    Kalithokai an ancient Tamil literature describes a great war fought between combined armies of Dravidian Villavar Meenavar against Nagas. In that war Villavar Meenavar were defeated and Nagas occupied central India. This war could have happened at 700 BC. Nahusha ruled central India with Pratishthana at Mahararashtra as his Capital perhaps after this period.

    NAGA MIGRANTS TO SOUTH INDIA

    Various clans of Nagas migrated to south India and Srilanka especially to coastal areas.

    1. Varunakulathor (Karave)
    2. Guhankulathor (Maravar, Murguhar, Sinhalese)
    3. Kauravas(Karave, Karaiyar)
    4. Paradavar
    5. Kalabhras(Kalappalar, Vellalar, Kallar)
    6. Ahichatram Nagas (Nair)

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  38. NAGA

    GUHAN DESCENDENTS

    The Guhan descendents belonged to the clan of Guhan, the mythical boatman Guhan at the banks of Sarayu river, a tributary of Ganges river. Guhan helped Lord Shree Rama to cross the Ganges river. Lord Shriram invited the Guhan clan to Ayodhya and gave them positions.

    WAR WITH RAVANA

    The Guhan clans formed part of Ayodhyas army who accompanied Lord Shrirama to southern India. Along with Vanara (Vanar - Banar) from Kishkinda the Guhan clans fought against Ravana. Ravana belonged to Iyakkar clan who were closely associated with Dravidian people and spoke Tamil. Ravana's uncle Sage Agasthya wrote grammar for Tamil called Agathiyam. Ravana could have ruled in the sixth century BC.

    Mahabharatha mentions a Singhala King from Srilanka participating in Kurukshetra war and Rajasuya Yagnam. Vibishana snd Maya Danava, father in law of Ravana also lived in the Mahabharatham period. In 543 AD Vijaya established Singhalese kingdom. Thus Vibishana and a Singhala king coexisted at Srilanka according to Mahabharatham, possibly in the sixth century BC.

    MARAVAR

    Mattakalappu Manmiyam says that Maravars had been fishermen at the Ganges river who were invited to Ayodhya by Lord Shriram and were given positions in Ayodhya. Mattakalappu Manmiyam also says that Ayodhya ancestry meant Maravar. Later Maravar became the companions of Lord Shriram and came to south india. Along with Vanaras Maravar invaded and defeated Ravana. Mattakalappu Manmiyam praises Maravar as destroyers of Arakkar dynasty. Maravar and Vanarar might have fought with Ravana in the sixth century BC.

    வீரனென்னும் பரதிகுல யிரகுமுன்னாள்வேட்டை சென்றெங்கள் குலமெல்லிதன்னைமாரனென்றணைத்தீன்ற சவலையர்க்குவருஇரகு நாடனென நாமமிட்டுபூருவத்தி லயோத்தி யுரிமையீந்துபோன பின்னர் சிறிராமர் துணைவராகிதீரரென்னுமரக்கர்குலம் வேரறுத்தசிவ மறவர்குலம் நானும் வரிசைகேட்டேன்(மட்டகளப்பு மான்மியம்)

    Mattakalappu Manmiyam says that after this war at Lanka many Nagas started migrating to Srilanka.

    ReplyDelete
  39. NAGA

    INVASION OF SRILANKA BY MURGUHAR

    Murguhar from Ayodhya invaded Srilanka.

    இலங்கையின் வனப்பைக் கேள்வியுற்று வடஇந்தியாவிலே அயோத்தியினின்றும் முற்குகர் இலங்கைக்குப் படையெடுத்து வந்தனர்.
    (மட்டக்களப்பு மான்மியம்)

    THREE BRANCHES OF GUHAN

    According to Mattakalappu Manmiyam the three branches of Guhan were Singar Vangar and Kalingar. The Nagas moved along the Ganges eastwards and founded or joined the kingdoms at Bengal and Kalinga.
    The three ancient kingdoms of Guhan clans were

    1. Singar- Sinhala country at Bengal
    2. Vangar - Bengal
    3. Kalingar - Orissa

    From these countries the Nagas started settling at the east coast of Tamilnadu and Ramnad and Srilanka.

    THREE SUBCLANS OF GUHAN CLAN

    By the merger of the Nagas from three Guhan branches Singar, Vangar and Kalingar three clans of Nagas emerged.
    These were

    1. Sinhalese
    2. Maravar
    3. Murguhar(Mukkuvar)

    These three clans were called the Murkulathor or Mukkulathor or Mukkulathavar or Murguhar in Srilanka according to Mattakalappu Manmiyam. Because of this close relationship with Sinhalese, at the Mattakalappu ruled by Kandy's Kalingan kings, Mukkuvar were appointed as the regional Governor of Mattakalappu area called Podi . Mukkuvar governors called Arumakutty Podi and Kandappodi were mentioned in the Mattakalappu Manmiyam written in 1600s.

    Similarly Maravar were appointed as Vanniya, administrators of the Mattakalappu area. However in the northern Tamil area, Yazhpanam Maravar or Mukkuvar could not occupy high offices. Guhan clans the Sinhalese, Maravar and Mukkuvar could be the early Naga migrants who might have migrated after the invasion of Vijayabahu in 543 BC.

    INDIAN MUKKULATHOR

    At India Maravar have distanced themselves from Mukkuvar and have joined Kalabhras and Thuluva Vellala at the South arcot area.

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  40. NAGA

    NAGA DYNASTIES IN NORTH INDIA

    Nagas were considered equal to Aryans in the early period. Nagas had high status and could become Indra. Many Naga dynasties ruled northindia. Shishunaga dynasty (413 to 345 BC) and Nanda dynasty (345 to 322 BC) were the last Naga dynasties to rule Northern India. But in the laterdays they became an oppressed class in the northern India. Nagas were sold as slave warriors to southern kingdoms. Nagas adoption of Buddhism from sixth century onwards might have caused their degradation.

    BUDDHIST NAGAS

    Nagas were closely associated with the Ikshvaku dynasty. The last king of Ikshvaku dynasty Prasanajit who ruled Kashi converted to Buddhism and became a disciple of Lord Buddha. After this period the Nagas revolted against the Aryan practices and converted themselves to Buddhism.

    ARYAN REACTION

    Pushyamitra Sunga(185 BC to 149 BC) a Brahmin - General of Maurya empire murdered the last king of Maurya dynasty Brihadratha Maurya. Pushyamitra Sunga established the Sunga dynasty. Pushyamitra Sunga persecuted the Buddhists, most of them were Nagas. Pushyamitra Sunga burned Buddhist scriptures and demolished Monasteries After this period Nagas were degraded.

    Brahmins converted the New foreign invaders such as Scythian and Huna invaders to Hinduism. In the later period Jat clans and Rajputs perhaps originated from the foreign invaders. Mohyal Brahmins from Iraq seem to be originally Turkish people but now accepted as Brahmins. Nagas were pushed to a lower stratum in the North India. The persecution of Nagas could be one reason why there was mass migration of Nagar to Southern India. An other reason was the Scythian-Saka invasion in 150 BC.

    NAGARS OF PADMAVATI(170 AD to 350 AD)

    Nagas of central India, which was a hindu dynasty, rose again after the end of Kushana rule. Nagas from Vidisha extended their rule to Mathura. They were contemporaries of Saka rulers. In the end they were subjugated by the Gupta empire.

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  41. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  42. NAGA

    INDO-SCYTHIAN KINGDOM(150 BCE to 400 AD)

    Indo-Scythian invasion and their occupation of Sind, Ganges and Narmatha river valleys might have caused a large exodus ofKalwar from the Chedi kingdom. Kalwar from Chedi Kingdom were known as Kalappirar in the south India. North Indian Kalwar surnames Kalar, Kallar, Kaliyapala and Kalal closely resemble that of Kalappirar titles Kalvar, Kaliyar, Kallar and Kalappalar.

    CHEDI KINGDOM

    Chedi kingdom was situated at Madyapradesh at the banks of Ken river. Kalwar might have been the inhabitants of Chedi Kingdom. Kalwar might have migrated to ancient orissa and then to Tamilnad where they were known as Kalappirar or Kalappalar.
    Kalwar might be the same people who founded Kalachuri kingdoms at Mahishmati in the 6th century and at Tripuri in the 10th century AD. Kalachuri soldiers used a type of knife called Churi. Churi Knife was used in Tamilnadu after the invasion of Kalappirar.

    KING KHARAVELA(105 BC)

    King Kharavela who was from the Chedi dynasty ruled Kalinga country in the second century BC. Kharavela occupied the northern Tamilnadu around 105 BC. The Kharavelas commanders who occupied northern Tamilnadu were known as Velir or Vel Alar or Karalar. Since they came from Kalinga the Vellalar were known as Kalinga Kulam. Vellalar were early Kalappirar who were also Known as Kalappalar. Kalappalar were the aristocracy of Kalappirar. Vellala have Pillai and Mudaliar surnames.

    KALWAR KOMAN PULLI

    In the early Christian era a Kalabhra ruler called Mavan Pulli also known as Kalvar Koman ruled at Thirupathi.

    KALABHRA INVASION

    In the third century the Kalappirar or Kaliar or Kalvar established their rule after defeating all the three crowned kings of Thamilakam Next three hundred years Tamilakam went into a dark age. The Kalabhra capital was at the Nandi hills near Bangalore. The descendents of Kalappirar are Kalappalar-Vellalar and Kallar community of Tamilnadu.

    KALLAR

    Puvindra puranam and Kalla Kesari Purannam claim that Kallar descended from Indra and Ahalya. Historically Kallar were the descendents of Kalabhra invaders in the third century AD.

    Kallar, Maravar, Agamudaiyar and Vellalars are closely related Naga tribes who migrated from Gangetic river area to Tamilnadu in the third Tamil Sangam Period(500 BC to 300 AD). They claim to descent from Indra and Ahalya, wife of Rishi Gautma.

    INDRA KULAM

    Indra had an illicit relationship with Rishi Gautama's wife Ahalya. Ahalia bore Indra three sons, who respectively took the names Kalla, Marava, and Ahambadya. claim to be descendants of Thevan or Indra.(Mr. F. S. Mullaly )

    But according to Ramakien, the Thai Ramayana the children of Ahalya through Indra was Bali and through Surya was Sugriva.

    'கள்ளர் மறவர் கனத்ததோர் அகமுடையர் மெல்ல மெல்ல வெள்ளாளர் ஆனார்'
    is an old saying.

    kallar, Maravar and Ahambadiyar slowly became Vellalars. Thus Vellalar, Kallar, Maravar and Agambadiyar all belong to Indra Kulam.

    This is the reason why in Kallar marriages the bridegroom has to confirn that he belongs to Indra kulam, Thalavala nadu, and Ahalya gotra. Ala means Naga. Thalavala nadu may mean Head of Naga country. Kallars practised Polyandry, a Naga custom.

    KARAIYAR

    Mattakalappu Mahanmiyam says that Karaiyar were impressed by the prosperity of Srilanka and started migrating to Srilanka. Karaiyar claim descendency from Kauvarava and Bharatha. Karaiyar might have migrated to Srilanka in the early third Sangam period around 300 BC.

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  43. NAGA

    NAGAS IN SANGAM LITERATURE

    Sangam Literature mentioned Maravar, Eyinar, Aruvalar, Oliar, Oviar, Paradavar were the ancient Naga migrants to Tamilnadu.

    PARADAVAR

    Paradavar call themselves Parvatha Rajakulam and also Bharathakula Kshatriyar. Parvatha clan was one of the Vedic clans at the Gangetic area. Parvatha clan was mentioned by Mahabharatha who were residing at the Northwest and also at the Gangetic areas in the sixth century BC. Paratarajas was an Iranian dynasty ruling over Baloochistan between first to third century AD. At Baloochistan a northern Dravidian language called Brahui is still spoken. Paradavar might have been displaced from their homeland at the first century AD. In the same period they appeared at the Sangam age Tamilnadu. Paradavar revolted against the Pandiyan rulers who were successful in defeating and suppressing them. Nedunjeliyan II  at 210 AD defeated the Paradavar who refused to pay tax.


    THE ORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF SRILANKA

    The people indigenous to Srilanka were Iyakkar. Iyakkar were a minor race of people who were ethnically different from Dravidian Villavar. But they intermixed with Asura-Dravidian people and they spoke Tamil. Other occupants of Srilanka were Dravidians-Asura people. The island was under the influence and control of Villavar dynasties ie Chera Chola Pandiyan dynasties. Agasthya Muni used to stay at the Agasthya malai in Tamilnadu. Sage Agasthya was the uncle of Iyakkar king Ravana.

    A place called Komari exists at the south eastern Srilanka. A place called Madura exists at south central area from where a river called Madura oya(river) starts flowing. The places Komari and Madura could be related to the kumarikkandam the continent destroyed by deluge. The largest river in Srilanka was called Mahaweli Ganga. Mahabali was the ancestor of Villavar and Bana people of India. But when the Gangetic Nagas arrived they have added Ganga to it.

    Srilankas old name itself was Thambapani, which was a variant of the name of Thamraparni river in Tamilnadu. The Iyakkar capital was at Thambapani when the Sinhalese prince Singabahu invaded the Srilanka in 543 BC. Srilanka was also called Serendib, a variation of Cherandeevu which was an indication of Chera king's sovergnity in Srilanka in the prehistorical era. Serendib is even now the official name of Srilanka. Prior to first Sinhala king Vijaya Bahu's arrival in 543 BC, many Nagas had been inhabiting Srilanka along with Iyakkar.

    NAGA DWEEP

    In the third Tamil Sangam period itself Srilanka was called Naga Nadu or Naga Theevu. The early Nagas often joined hands with the Iyakkar against the Sinhalese. Srilanka is a country of Buddhist Nagas, who have their origin at Gangetic river basin.

    RISE OF BUDDHISM

    Many of the Nagas who migrated to Srilanka could have been Buddhists already. When Ashokas sons Mahendra and Sangamitra arrived at Srilanka in during the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa (250 BC to 210 BC) who ruled from Anuradhapura at 250 BC most of the Srilankans were converted to Buddhism.

    IYAKKAR NAGA WARS

    The indigenous Iyakkar people were eventually defeated and suppressed. The Iyakkar clan fishermen called Thimilar were also defeated. But finally Thimilar were massacred with the help of Pattanis from Afghanistan in the 12fth century AD.

    IYAKKAR MIGRATION TO KERALA

    Many Iyakkar migrated to Kerala in the ancient times. Ezha Iyakkar became a supporting clan of Chera dynasty founded by Villavar clans. Iyakkar-Yakkar lords ruled over Kakkanad, Kumaranellur and Punalur areas. Ezha Iyakkar inscriptions are found at Kakkanad temple in the Ernakulam district.

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  44. NAGA

    THE AHICHATRAM NAGAS(345 AD)

    In the Kadamba country in Karnataka a Brahmin called Mayurasharma Became a king and changed his name to Mayura Varma. Mayuravarma to strengthen himself brought Aryan Brahmins and Naga slave warriors from Ahichatram which was the ancient capital of Uttarapanchala country at 345 AD. These Naga slave warriors were known as Buntaru (bonded slaves).

    These Nagas could be related to Newar people of Nepal. Laterday Nair architecture closely resembled Newar architecture. Newars practised Matriarchy earlier. Mayuravarma settled them at the coastal Karnataka. These Nagas mixed with the local Bana clans known as Banta(of Bana). Eventually both were called Bunts. Bunts, including Nairs had served Alupa kingdom at Mangalore.

    GANGAR AND KONGAR

    Gangetic area agriculturists called Gangar or Kongar(Gauda Gaundar) migrated to south india around second century AD. Gauda is an alternative name for Ganges. In Tamilnadu they were known as Kongu. Cilappatikaram mentioned that Cheran Cenkuttuvan defeated Kongu people in the second century AD. In 350 AD western Ganga kingdom was established at Karnataka after the southern invasion of Samudra Gupta.

    During the rule of Western Ganga king Avinita(469 AD to 529 AD) Kongu was brought under Ganga dynasty and the Kongu Vellalar settled down at Kongu in the sixth century AD. Chera dynasty after losing Kongu territory shifted their capital from Karur to Kodungaloor. Kongu Vellalars are ethnically related to Gaudas of Karnataka, Gangadikara Vokkaliga. They are also related to Lingayaths of Karnataka by religeon hence they are also called as Lingaya Gaunders. They are not ethnically related to Vellalar and other Nagas. Kongu Vellalar had been the enemies of Villavar of Chera dynasty.

    NAGPUR

    Nagpur is considered a centre of Nagas. But in North India Nagars were forced to remain in a lower stratumUnlike their oppressed Naga counterparts in the Northern India, the Nagas in Kerala and Tamilnadu by allying with the Arabs and Delhi Sultanate had elevated themselves to a higher stratum but destroyed the local Dravidian Villavar culture.

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  45. NAGA

    THE RISE OF NAGAS

    Until 12th century the Ahichatram Nagas of Tulunadu, the Nairs were serving their Tulu Kings subserviently. Similarly the Gangetic Nagas of Tamilnadu Vellalar, Kallar, Maravar and Agambadiyar were serving the Chola and Pandyan kingdoms subserviently.

    But the Arrival of Arabs and Turks in the 12th century transformed Nagas considerably. In the North India many with Naga roots joined the armies of Turkish sultanate.

    TULU INVASION

    In 1102 AD Kerala's hindu Villavar kings faced threat from a Tulu Buddhist prince called Banapperumal. Banapperumal had been supported by Arabs who wanted to establish a sea base, port and a settlement in Kerala. Facing imminent Tulu invasion the Chera dynasty ruling at Kodungaloor shifted its capital to Kollam at 1102 AD. At 1120 AD Banapperumal brother of King Kavi Alupendra of alupa dynasty invaded Kerala with 350000 strong Nair army. In fact it was a mass migration of Nairs from Tulunadu to Kerala.

    Banapperumal invaded Malabar, and occupied Northern Kerala without war.
    Chera dynasty perhaps did not want to go to war with Arabs who had a powerful navy and their companions the Tulu-Nepalese Nagas.
    Banapperumal established his capital at Valarpattinam near Kannur. After that He ruled from Kodungaloor which had been abandoned by the Chera dynasty in 1102 AD.

    Banapperumal and some of his nephews embraced Islam religeon. Many Nairs converted to Islam religeon and a Matriarchal muslim community was established at Malabar. Banapperumal left for Arabia in 1156 AD after dividing Malabar and giving to his son Udayavarman Kolathiri and his three nephews born to his sister Sridevi. Thus a large Nair population had entered Kerala in the twelfth century with Arab support. Arabs continued to protect them until sixteenth century.

    NAIRS

    Nairs were Ahichatram Nagas, who practised many Naga customs like Matriarchy and Polyandry. Nairs had numerous snake temples called Sarpakavus, where they worshipped live snake.
    Nairs were related to Bunt community of Tulunadu but not ethnically related to other Malayalis. At kerala they intermixed with Tamil clans such as Vellalar and Panickar.

    Nair lords were called Madambi (Mada + Nambi), because of their place of origin Ahichatra Madasthana (high place) at Himalaya.

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  46. NAGA

    MALIK KAFUR'S INVASION IN 1310 AD

    In 1310 AD, Delhi's armies with its two lakh soldiers led by Malik Kafur attacked Panddyan Kingdom. Around Thiruchengodu places called Chanara Palayam and Panickar Palayam exist where the Pandyan armies were once stationed. Pandyan kingdom which had only an army with Fifty thousand and was defeated. In the following period Delhis armies hunted down Villavars. Many Villavars found refuge in the western Ghats others went to Srilanka.

    NAGAS COLLUSION WITH DELHI SULTANATE

    Many Nagas with Kalappirar lineage converted to islam religeon in that period. By this Vellalar, Kallar and Maravars were enabled to occupy the Chola clan and Pandyan clan lands.

    After the defeat of Pandyan dynasty in 1310 AD by Malik Kafur, Nagas were elevated to a higher position. Eventthough they were Sudras, Nagas were elevated high above the indigenous Villavar clans. Till then Kerala and Tamilnadu had been ruled by Villavar clans. The reason for this is, bulk of the Nagas had allied with the invaders from Delhi and many nagas had embraced Islam religeon. Many Kallars were reconverted to hinduismட again after the establishment of Vijayanagara Naicker rulein 1377 AD but kallars retained some islamic customs such as circumcision.

    MADURAI SULTANATE (1335 AD to 1377 AD)

    When Madurai sultanate was founded in 1335 Kerala was given to Tulu Samantha-Nambuthiri dynasties. This empowered Nairs throughout Kerala again without war. Thus Nairs established their authority all over Kerala by becoming allies of Arabs, Delhi Sultanate and Madurai sultanate, without fighting any war.

    At Tamilnadu Kallars and Vellalars joined the Madurai sultanate as allies and many embraced Islam religeon. The Kallar, Maravar, Ahambadiyar and Vellalar occupied Villavar lands in that period.

    PARASHURAMA

    Nambuthiris claimed that Parashurama created Kerala out of the sea by throwing his axe and gave it to them. In the earlier Tamil Chera dynasty period Parashurama was never mentioned in books or inscriptions. This is a ploy of Nambuthiries to claim the Dravidian lands of Villavar people. Parasurama who lived in Treta Yuga 2,163,102 BC to 867,102 BC never ventured south of Haihaya kingdom or Narmata river. In reality Kerala was given to Nambuthiris by Malik Kafur only. Arabs brought Tulu-Nepalese Brahmins inside Kerala in 1120 AD. Malik Kafur in 1310 AD after defeating Pandyan dynasty gave Kerala to the rule of Tulu-Nepalese dynasties of Namputhiris and Samanthas. This in turn led to thகe dominance of Ahichatram Nagas in Kerala.

    FOUR TULU-NEPALESE KINGDOMS (1335)

    Four Tulu Samantha kingdoms were established in them Nambuthiris had the right for sambandam with princesses. Thus these dynasties was Tulu Samantha+Nambuthiri dynasties.

    1. Kolathiri dynasty
    2. Samuthiri dynasty
    3. Kochi dynasty
    4. Attingal rani dynasty

    SMALL NAIR KINGDOMS

    Valluvanadu, Palakkadu and Thekkumkur kings were Nairs.

    VALLUVA KONATHIRI

    Valluvakonathiri moopil Nair was the king of Valluvanad. On each 12 years during the Mamangam festival Valluvanad Nairs attempted to Kill Samuthiri at the Utsavaparambu near Pattambi.

    THAROOR SWAROOPAM

    Tharoor swaroopam was the Palakkad kingdom ruled over by Nair kings called Sekhari Varmas. Prior to 1335 AD they were at Athavanad in Ponnani Thaluk of Malappuram district.

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  47. NAGA

    OCCUPATION OF CHERA TEMPLES(1335 AD)

    The Chera temples were occupied by Nagas in 1335 AD. Immediate response was the Villarvattom king and his Panickers converted to Christianity after 1339 AD which provoked an attack from Samudiri and Arabs on Chendanangalam in 1340 AD. Half of Villavars went to Srilanka and adopted Buddhism. Nearly 45 percent of remaining Hindus converted to other religions. The Dravidian Hinduism including Kannagi worship came to an end. A Nepalese style of Hinduism including alive Naga worship came into existence in Kerala.

    EXODUS OF VILLAVARS(1350 AD)

    The Delhis army continued to massacre the Villavars. Villavars took refuge in the western Ghats. Chanar Malai near Chenkotah was a jungle refuge used by Villavars for the next two hundred years. Many Villavar Panickars from Kerala went to Srilanka. Between 1350 to 1600 AD, Panicker armies of Kerala served the three kingdoms of Srilanka ie Kotte, Kandi and Yazhpanam kingdoms. Panikkars were converted to Buddhism and lost their individuality. Alagakonara who went from Vanchipura ie Kollam built the Colombo fort. He named it after the old name of Kollam, Kolambam. His son Vira Alakesvara of Gampola ruled Gambola near Colombo between 1387 to 1411 AD. Alagakonara family also had adopted Buddhism.

    Sadasiva Panickan joined the Kotte kingdom as elephant trainer. Sadasivapanikkan married a lady from the royal family of Kotte. His son Senbahapperumal became the ruler of Kotte and Jaffna kingdoms, and adopted the royal title Bhuvanaikabahu VI of Kotte (1469 AD to 1477 AD)The migration of Villavar armies to Srilanka and their religious conversion to Buddhismfurther weakened the Villavar people of India. The Tamil soldiers from Kerala because of their peculiar hair knot on top of the head were known as Kondaikkara Thamilar.

    The Tamil soldiers from Kerala because of their peculiar hairstyle were known as Kondaikkara Thamilar.

    IYAKKAR STAND AFTER 1335 AD

    Keralas Ezha iyakkar population did not fight the Naga invaders and they had accepted a subordinate position. Some people of Villavar origin, Villavar, Panickars and Shannar joined Ezha Iyakkar and they became their leaders. These considerably weakened Villavars and took away their ability to retaliate.


    VIJAYANAGARA NAICKAR ATTACK (1377 AD)

    The Vijayanagara attack under Kumara Kambanna defeated and evicted the Madurai sultanate. During the Vijayanagara period many of the Kallars were reconverted to Hinduism. But many Kallars retained many Islamic customs until the end of 20th century.

    1. Circumcision Piramalaikkallar boys were practising circumcision until late 20th century with feast and celebration
    2. In Kallar marriages the bridegroom does not tie the thali but his sister ties the Thali around the neck of Bride.
    3. Kallar Thali bears the Crescent and star symbol.

    VANATHIRAYAR

    Vijayanagara Nayaks appointed Banas of Bana kingdom in the Andhrapradesh as the rulers of Madurai. Mahabali Vanathirayars pretended to be Pandyas. A bana chieftain called Thol Mahavili Vanathirayar was kept on the Pandya throne by Vijayanagar commander Vittala in the fifteenth century.A Vanathirayar had called himself Pandyakylanthaka or destroyer of the Pandiyan dynasty. Vanathirayar(Vanniar, Vanavarayar, Vanakovaraiyar) were appointed as the leaders of Nagas of Tamilnadu. Later these Vanathirayars who were the leaders of Various Naga clans became Palayakkarar under Madurai Nayak rule. Vanathirayars were ethnically related to Telugu Balija Naickars but not related to any Naga clans. These Vanathirayars used the Thevar title. The Naga, Kalabhra and Tuluva Vellalas also started using the Thevar title.

    Vijayanagara Naickars by effectively making Vanathirayars as naga clan chiefs controlled the Naga clans of Tamilnadu and by using the Naga armies antagonised the Villavar dynasties.

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  48. NAGA

    THE EUROPEAN COLONIAL RULERS

    The rightful owners of Tamilnadu and Kerala were Villavars and the rightful owners of Karnataka and Andhrapredesh were Banas. Villavar had ruled Tamilakam from time immemorial. Villavar had built all the temples in Kerala and Tailnadu. Banar were the northern cousins of Villavars and the arch enemies of Villavars.

    Malik Kafur defeated Pandyan kingdom in 1310 AD which led to the rule of Tulu Bana-Nepalese rule in Kerala(1335) and also led to Balija (Bana) Naickar rule in Tamilnadu(1377). This also led to the rise of Nepalese Nagas in Kerala and the elevation of Gangetic Basin Nagas in Tamilnadu. The suppression of Villavars and elevation of Nagas was an Arab, Delhi Sultanate and Madurai Sultanate strategy.

    The European colonial rulers readily accepted the Delhi sultanate's strategy of suppression of indigenous Dravidian Villavars and elevation of Nagas. The Portuguese supported North Indian Aryan Naga migrants to and also the foreign blooded Christians in Kerala. Dutch and British followed the same strategy of Delhi Sultanate.

    Most of the colonial administrators were northen migrants. Thus Nagas had a golden age for 450 years in India and Srilanka . Nagas had come to south india as slaves or refugees. Nagas had been thiefs and robbers or slave warriors by profession in south India. Most of the criminal tribes in South India were Naga clans. But with the help of Muslim invaders and Europeans the Nagas were actually ruling south India after 1335.

    Portuguese supported the Tulu-Nepalese rulers of Kerala. Europeans became protectors of Nagas of Kerala replacing the Delhi sultanate and Arabs .Europeans protected Nagas in Kerala for 450 years. Nagas had retained their high position until independence with European help.

    Most of the foreign sailor traders and invaders such as Arabs, Turkish sultanate of Delhi and Europeans preferred non-native Tulu-Nepalese Naga-Samantha clans to indigenous villavar tamil rulers of Kerala.

    In Tamilnadu Portuguese and Dutch converted many Nagas especially Marava and Vellalars to Christianity. British who came as allies of Arcot Nawab followed the same policies of Muslim invaders such as elevation of Nagas and Suppression of Villavars.

    NAGA COLLUSION WITH SULTHANS AND BRITISH

    MARUTHANAYAGAM PILLAI   ALIAS YUSUF KHAN

    Maruthanayagam Pillai (1725 to 1764 AD) was a Vellala commandant of the British East India Company's Madras Army. He had embraced Islam and adopted the name Yusuf Khan thereby he could gain the confidence of Chanda Sahib the Arcot Nawab and Hyderabad Nizam. Yusuf Khan married a Portuguese Christian or Luso-Indian girl named Marcia or Marsha. By marrying a Christian he could convince the British that his family was christian. British appointed him Tax collector of Madurai and Thirunelveli. But when Maruthanayagam Pillai tried to betray his British masters they hanged him. British raised his son a Christian.

    VELLUVAKKAMMARAN NAMBIAR ALIAS SHEIKH MUHAMMAD AYAZ KHAN

    Velluvakkammaran Nambiar (1713 to 1799) was a commander of Hyder ali who converted to Islam. Ayaz Khan became an adopted son and trusted lieutenant of Hyder Ali. Ayaz Khan was made the Governor of Chitradurga.

    In 1778 Ayaz Khan was appointed as the Commander of Bednur Fort. Ayaz Khan in 1782 conspired with the British and handed over the Bednur Fort to British. After the surrender he lived at Bombay as a pensioner of British.

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  49. KUMARIKKANDAM

    ORIGIN OF PANDIYAN KINGDOM

    The beginning of the Pandiyan kingdom was at the prehistory.

    Timeline

    1. Foundation of First Pandyan kingdom (9990 BC)
    2. First Deluge (5550 BC)
    3. Second Pandyan kingdom
    4. Second Deluge (1850 BC)
    5. Third Pandyan kingdom
    6. End of Sangam age(1 AD)

    NEOLITHIC PERIOD(10000 BC)

    ESTABLISHMENT OF PANDYAN KINGDOM(9990 BC)
    __________________________________________

    According to ancient Tamil Sangham literature, Pandiyan King Kaysina Vazhuthi founded Pandyan kingdom at about 9990 BC. That is Pandiyan kingdom was founded 11,971 years before present.

    Pandiyan kingdom was established at the Kumarikkandam, a large ancient landmass which existed south of Kanniyakumari, between Kumari river and Paqruli river.

    TAMIL SANGAMS

    A commentary of Iraiyanar Akapporul written in 5-8th centuries AD gives the details about the duration of the three Tamil Sangams.

    FIRST TAMIL SANGHAM (9990 BC to 5550 BC)

    Pandiyan king Kaysina Vazhuthi founded the first Tamil sangam known as Thalai Sangham in the same era.

    During the first Tamil sangham era atleast 89 Pandiyan kings ruled over Pandiyan kingdom, but in reality number of kings, could be more.

    The first capital of Pandiyan kingdom was Then Madurai. This was Southern Madurai which was sunken under sea after a great deluge at the end of first Tamil era which lasted for 4440 years.

    THREE MADURAIS

    There were actually three capitals known as Madurai in the ancient times. Southern Madurai in Kumarikandan, Madurai which was capital the laterday Pandiyan kingdom and the Vada Mathurai or Mathura puri in northern India, which could have been the capital of an ancient Banappandiyan kingdom.

    The first Tamil Sangam remained functional for about 4440 years starting with the rule of Pandiyan King Kaisina Vazhuthi and came to an end after the rule of King Kadungon.

    According to the ancient Tamil literature, by the end of First Tamil epoch, during the rule of Kadungon at around 5550 BC there was a cataclysmic deluge which submerged Kumarikandam to deep.

    According to Purananooru an ancient Tamil literature , Pandian king used to celebrate Three water festival at the estuary of Paqruli river.

    In the first deluge Paqruli river, Kumari Mountain range, Kumari river and the Southern Madurai were submerged under sea.

    Similarly an ancient deluge is described in many ancient literatures for eg Gilgamesh epic in Sumerian documents, Noah's deluge described in Genesis Bible.

    SHRADDADEVA MANU

    Matsya purana describes the legend of Shraddadeva manu, a Dravidian king who escaped deluge by boarding a boat dragged by a huge fish an incarnation of God Mahavishnu.

    After the deluge, the boat of Shraddadeva manu came to shore and landed on the peak of the Malaya Mountain ie the Western Ghats.

    SHRADDADEVA MANU -PANDIAN

    When the deluge engulfed the Kumarikkandam, Pandyan family could have escaped the deluge, by boarding a ship.

    That boat might have landed at Malaya mountains alias Western Ghats. Earlier story of the Pandyan could have been the basis for Matsya purana. Northern cousins of Meenavar are known by the names Meena as well as Matsya.

    The deluge which submerged Kumarikkandam in 5550 BC was the first one out of the two deluges told in the early Tamil history.

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  50. KUMARIKKANDAM

    REESTABLISHMENT OF PANDYAN KINGDOM(5500 BC)
    ____________________________________________

    SECOND TAMIL SANGHAM

    Pandyan kingdom was reestablished again with its new capital at Kapadapuram, by Pandyan king Ven Ther Chezhian..

    COPPER AGE(4500 BC)

    The second session of Tamil Sangham called Idaichangam was convened at Kapadapuram. Second Tamil Sangham was also called as Meen Koodal epoch. Kuadam or Kapadapuram had been located to the north of the ancient Paqruli river about 700 kaadham (1120 km) and south of the Kumari river delta.

    The second tamil Sangham era of Pandiyan Kingdom lasted for about 3700 years starting from 5550 BC to 1,850 BC. The first king was Ven Ther Chezian while the last Pandiyan king was Mudathirumaran. Iraiyanar Agapporul says that 59 Pandiyan kings ruled in that era.

    SECOND DELUGE(1850 BC)

    At the end of Second Tamil Sangham epoch Pandian Capital Kapadapuram was destroyed by another deluge at about 1850 BC. The deluge flooded Kuadam and the remaining part of the Kumari kaandam forever. This deluge corresponds to the period in which Indus Valley civilization declined. Indus Valley civilization declined in the period between 1900 BC to 1700 BC period.

    RELOCATION OF PANDYAN KINGDOM(1850 BC)

    THIRD TAMIL SANGHAM (1850 BC to 1 AD)

    After the deluge at 1850 BC the capital of Pandiyan Kingdom was shifted to Madurai where the third Tamil Sangham was convened. Third Tamil Sangam with 49 Pandyan kings and 449 participating poets, it lasted for 1850 years.

    SECONDARY CAPITALS

    Korkai and Tenkasi were the secondary capiitals. Korkai which had been situated at the estuary of Thamirabarni river, was an ancient capital of Pandiyans. Tenkasi is another ancient Pandyan capital in the vicinity of Malaya mountains. Srilanka was ruled by Pandiyans from very ancient times. Srilankas ancient name Thambapani was derived from the name of Thamirabarani river. And Srilanka was under Chera kings too, for that reason lending the name Cheran deevu ie Serandib to Srilanka.

    Third Tamil Sangham started with the reign of King Mudathirumaran and had ended with the rule of King Ukkirapperuvazhuthi(42 BC to 1 AD) as told in the epic Silappatikaram.

    KAPADAPURAM LATERDAYS

    The Pandiyan capital Kapadapuram had been shifted to Modern Madurai after a deluge in 1850 BC. Kapadapuram might have rebuilt again as it had been mentioned until sixth century BC in North Indian Chronicles.

    IN RAMAYANA KAPADAPURAM

    In the Ramayana, Kisukinda Kandam (4-41-18), Sukrivan told the Vanara army, who were looking towards south for Sita, As you head south you will find a city with walls adorned with gold, pearls and ornaments. Look for Sita in the Kapadapuram of that emperor Pandian. Ramayana mentions Kapadapuram as Kavadam.

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  51. KUMARIKKANDAM
    _________________________________________

    LOCATION OF KUMARIKKANDAM

    Traditionally it was thought that a large land mass south of Kanyakumari existed in prehistory that was destroyed by a deluge. That land mass definitely would have included Srilanka also.

    IN SRILANKA

    KOMARI

    Komari is a place in the South eastern coastal area of Srilanka a thin strip of land adjoining Komari Lagoon. Four kilometers from Komari into the sea sunken sand ridges called Komari ridges exist. Komariya is yet another place further inland in Srilanka.

    MADURA

    About 140 km west of Komari in the inland, a place called Madura exists near the Maduru Oya National park. A river called Maduru Oya flows from there to north Central province north of Komari.

    MAHAWELI GANGA

    A river called Mahaweli Ganga named after Mahabali flows north of Maduru Oya. Mahabali is considered progenitor of Tamil Villavars and their northern cousins Banas. This river might have been named during the rule of ancient Pandyans who descended from Villavars.

    INDONESIA

    In the north of the Island of Java an Island called Madura is there. On the Java island a place called Komari, near Surabayaexist 20 km away. Madura islanders carry long swords with tips curved forwards. Madura island may have some connection with Pandyans.

    LEMURIA

    Lemur Fossils are found in Madagascar and India but not seen in Africa or Arabia. A Zoologist called Philip Sclater, consceptualised that a supercontinent called Lemuria had existed in the Indian ocean in 1864. Lemuria was a large land mass, believed to have connected Madagascar and India. But this theory is largely has been discredited by scientific community after the theory of Continental drift appeared in 1912 AD.

    COMORIN RIDGE

    An undersea ridge with elevation of about one kilometre from the sea was discovered south of Cape Comorin in 1964.
    It was named Comorin ridge because of its proximity to Kanniyakumari. The ridge is located about 200 km south of Kanniyakumari in the Indian ocean west of Srilanka. Its dimensions are 500 km long in the North-South and 150 Km broad in the East-West.

    The Comorin Ridge extends from NNW towards SSE direction between latitudes 1.5°N and 6.5°N. Average depth of sea from sea-floor, is 2 to 4.2 km with minimum depth of sea at Comorin ridge is 1km. At the northern border, the Comorin ridges merges with the continental shelf south of kanniyakumari.

    It is possible that Comorin ridge could be the remnant of Kumarikandam. But what cataclysm will submerge a land three kilometres deep underwater is not clear. Because of Global warming melting polar ice cap, raising the sealevel could be one cause. When the Indian plate colliding against Eurasian plate, was its southern edge tilted downwards sinking Kumarikandam?
    Or perhaps because of an ancient meteor strike, the land might have been blown apart.


    CONCLUSION

    There is no concrete evidence to suggest Kumarikhandam existed.

    Although,

    It is a south indian Atlantis of Dravidian People.

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  52. ASURA-DRAVIDIAN BEGINNING OF INDIAN SUBCONTINENT

    DRAVIDIAN RULE IN ANCIENT NORTH INDIA

    Many Dravidian kingdoms existed in northern India as well in ancient times . In ancient literature, Dravidian rulers were called asuras. In ancient India, there were Danavar, Daityar, Banar, Meena and Villavar kingdoms. The Aryans dominated only the northern part of the river Ganga. Many Banasuras with Dravidian roots ruled northern India.

    DRAVIDIAN VILLAVAR-BANA DYNASTIES
    1. Danava Daitya
    2. Bana Meena.
    3. Villavar meenavar

    Danavar Villavar and Banar may be people with the same ethnicity and they had been ruled by Kings who had Mahabali title.

    DANAVA AT THE INDUS VALLEY (1800 BC)

    VRITRA KING OF INDUS

    Vritra was an early Danava king who perhaps had been ruling over Indus Valley civilization.

    Vritra perhaps built many stone dams, which resembled the shape of snakes, on the branches of Indus river to control irrigation. Vritra had 99 forts at the Indus area.

    According to the Rig Veda, Vritra kept all the waters of the world captive, until he was killed by Indra. Indra destroyed all the 99 fortresses of Vritra. 

    Vritra broke Indra's two jaws during the battle, but was then thrown down by Indra and, in falling, crushed the fortresses that had already been shattered.

    For this feat, Indra became known as "Vṛtrahan" ie Slayer of Vritra.

    Vritra's mother Danu, who was also the mother of the Dānava race of Asuras, was then attacked and defeated by Indra with his thunderbolt.

    Three Devas, Varuna, Soma and Agni were coaxed by Indra into aiding him in the fight against Vritra, whereas before they had been on the side of Vritra whom they called Father.

    VALA BROTHER OF VRITHRA

    Parallel to Vritra "the blocker" a stone serpent(Dam) slain by Indra to liberate the rivers.

    Rig Veda 2.12.3 Indra Who slew the Dragon, freed the Seven Rivers(Sapta Sindhu), and drove the kine(cows) forth from the cave of Vala.

    After Vritra his brother Vala became the king of Indus valley. Once again Vala built dams across Indus. Vala also captured the catte of Aryans and locked them up in a cave. Indra killed King Vala and destroyed the long snakelike stone dams built by King Vala. Indra released all their cattle from the cave. Destruction of Dams might have resulted in the failure of irrigation and Agriculture. The watersupply to the city states also might have come from these dams. Eventually Indus valley civilization came to an end.


    DECLINE OF INDUS VALLEY CULTURE (1300 BC)

    Indus Valley had extensive Dams built in the shape of snakes on all the seven tributaries of Indus. As the Indus Valley was an Agricultural country Asura- Danava king Vritra built Dams. Aryans were mostly Pastoralists who did not like rivers blocked by Dams. Indra, king of Aryans fought with Asura king Vrithra and killed him. Indra destroyed all the dams built by him and also 99 forts of Danava king Vritra.

    BRAHUI

    At Mehrgarh in the Baloochistan area a Pre-Harappan Indus Valley civilisation (7000 BCE to c. 2500 BCE) existed. At the Baloochistan province the people talk a northern Dravidian tongue called Brahui even today.

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  53. ASURA-DRAVIDIAN

    DAITYA DANAVA REVOLT

    The king of Daitya was known as Mahabali. Under the leadership of Daitya king Mahabali  the Dānavas revolted against  the Devas (Aryans). The Devas (Aryans) exiled the Danavas from heaven(Northern India) during the Satya Yuga. After exile, the Danavas took refuge in the Vindhya Mountains Danava means People with Danu ie Bow, Villavar. Bana and their clans Daitya and Danavas were considered as Asura.

    DANAVA WRESTLERS

    On the behest of King Kamsa, Akrura the Yadava Elder invited Krishna and Balarama, to attend a Dhanush Yajna and a friendly wrestling match held at Mathura. Fearsome Danava wrestlers Chanura and Mushtika were killed by young Krishna and Balarama .

    IN BUDDHISM

    In Buddhism where they are known as the "bow-wielding" Dānaveghasa Asuras.

    COMMON ANCESTRY

    Dravidian Villavar, Meenavar and Asura Bana and Meena clans might have had common ancestors.
    Earlier period India was mostly inhabited by Dravidian people who formed Dravidian Kingdoms. In the south India many Pandiyan kingdoms were established by Villavar-Meenavar people.

    In the north india Villavar related Bana-Meena people had established numerous Banappandiyan kingdoms which were ruled by Kings called Mahabali.

    MAHABALI DYNASTY

    Both Villavar and Banas claimed descendency from Asura King Mahabali and his ancestor Hiranyakasibu. South Indian Bana and Pandiyan kings had performed Hiranyagarba ceremony. Hiranyan's ancient capital was at Iranial otherwise known as Hiranya Simha Nallur.

    BANASURA IN KANYAKUMARI LEGEND

    Banasura prayed to God Brahma who was the common God of Devas and Asuras. Banasura got the boon of immortality that he be killed at the hands of no man or woman in the entire universe. Banasura can only be killed by an unmarried girl or a child. Kanyakumari was born as an avatar of Parashakti. Banasura tried to abduct Kanyakumari but was killed by Goddess Kanyakumari.

    BANASURA AT THE SWAYAMVARA OF SITA

    Both Banasura and Ravana attended the Swayamvara of Sita devi. But Ravana and Banasura quietly slipped away as soon as they saw the bow.

    BANASURA DURING MAHABHARATHA PERIOD

    Banasura's daughter Usha dreamed of Aniruddha grand son of Lord Krishna. Usha's friend Chitralekha, through supernatural powers, abducted Aniruddha from the palace of Krishna and brought him to Usha. Aniruddha fell in love with Usha but Banasura imprisoned him. This led to a war with Lord Krishna, Balarama and Pradyumna. In the war Banasura was defeated. After that Usha was married to Aniruddha.

    BANA KINGDOM ANDHRA

    Andhra had a Bana kingdom which gave rise to many ruling dynasties of Balijas including Vijayanagara Nayaks. Because of their origin in King Mahabali they were called Balijas. Balijas were also called as Banajiga or Valanjiar.


    VANAR

    Banar preferred to stay in the jungles. Hence Kadamba Bana capital Banavasi was also called Vanavasi. They were also called as Vanar. The capital of Vanara king Bali was Kishkinda. The Balija Naickar royal family stay at Anegundi near Kishkinda.
    The capital of Balija Naickars who ruled over Vijayanagar was Hampi 22 km away from Kishkinda.

    At Karnataka many had existed Banappandiyan kingdoms including Kadamba Kingdom, Nurumbada Pandian kingdom, Santara Pandiyan kingdom, Uchangi Pandiyan kingdom, Alupas Pandian kingdom etc.

    Bana clans such as Tuluva had ruled over the western coastal of Karnataka. Bana Saluva clan ruled over Goa. Saluva and Tuluva clans were two dynasties of Vijayanagar empire too.

    In the North India most states have ancient Bana capitals called Banpur or Bhanpur from where Banas had ruled over that territories.

    MAHABALI

    Many kings with title Mahabali/Maveli title ruled over India. One Mahabali ruled from Sonitpur Assam, Another Mahabali ruled from Kerala and yet another Mahabali who was king of Daityas and Danavas in the Indus valley struggled against early Aryans in the Indus valley.

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  54. ASURA-DRAVIDIAN

    BANA MEENA CLANS

    In the Northern India the Villavar and Meenavar were known as Bana and Meena. Bana founded Banappandiyan kingdoms in the north and the Meena founded Meena or Matsya kingdom in the North India. Bhil tribe who ruled hilly areas also could be subgroups of Villavar.

    Similarly Meenas were Pre-Aryan rulers of Rajastan, Sindh and Gangetic plain who may have Dravidian roots. Even after the advent of Aryavartham Bana kingdom and Meena-Matsya kingdom existed in the Gangetic plain. Bana-Meena kingdoms were part of Vedic culture. In Matsya kingdom ruled by King Virata where Pandava spent one year in concealment.

    Meena-Matsya king Virata's daughter Uttara later married Arjuna's son Abhimanyu.

    Meena kingdom ruled Rajasthan until 1030 AD. Modern Jaipur was founded by Meena clans. Last powerful Meena ruler Alan singh Chanda Meena. Meenas were defeated by Kachwaha Rajputs in this period.

    DECLINE OF BANAS

    Banas declined after the arrival of Scythian, Parthian and Huna invaders who occupied northern India. Bana-Meena kingdoms were perhaps absorbed by Rajput kingdoms. The Meena kingdom lasted until 1030 AD when Rajputs and Delhi Sultanate had annexed their territories.

    During the coronation the Rajput king, custom of smearing the forehead of the king, with the blood drawn from the Thumb of Bhil or Meena clansmen was in vogue. This is because the original rulers of North India were Bana, Bhil, Meena people.


    DIVERSE ORIGINS
    The various kingdoms mentioned in ancient scriptures are of different ethnicities. Some kingdoms may have ancient Asura-Dravidian ancestry, while others are of Naga and Aryan ancestry. Some were foreigners.

    DRAVIDIAN HERITAGE

    Physically all Indians have the Brown colour and Dravidian facial features. It is because of their Dravidian origins.

    SCYTHIAN INVASION (150 BC)

    But these Dravidian tribes in the Gangetic plain of northern India were driven out of their homeland by the Scythian invaders.

    The Scythians may have assimilated the Villavar clans, who ruled over the Gange areas. There are many villavar-Nadar family names in the Jat community. The Jat community may have had a Scythian origin.

    Many Villavar surnames such as Nadar, Chanar, Sandhar Bilvan, Bana, Chera, Chola and Pandya found among the surnames of Jat community.

    The early literature of India mentions twin tribes called Danava and Daitya and their king Mahabali at Sindh area. Danu meant Bow. Danava clans might have been Dravidian Villavar - Bana people. Villavar and Bana people also considered Mahabali as their ancestor. Villavar and Bana kings performed Hiranyagarba ceremony. Hiranyakasipu was King Mahabali's ancestor.

    Danava, Daitya and Bana all were called Asuras. Dravidians and Asuras could be the same clans of people.

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  55. ASURA-DRAVIDIAN

    VILLAVAR MEENAVAR

    Tamil Villavar and its subgroups Villavar, Vanavar and Malayar and their sea-going cousins called Meenavar, all these were the people who founded the ancient Pandiyan kingdom. Ancient Pandiyan kings were known by their subclans e.g Malayar clan, Malayadwaja Pandiyan. Villavar clan, Sarangadwaja PandyanMeenavar clan, Meenava Pandiyanetc

    MERGER OF VILLAVAR CLANS

    In the laterdays all the Villavar clans merged with Meenavar clans to produce Nadalvar or Nadar clans.

    ORIGIN OF PANDIYAN KINGDOM

    The beginning of the Pandiyan kingdom was at the prehistory at Kumarikandam. The capitals were Then Madurai, Kapadapuram and Madurai.

    Timeline

    1. Foundation of First Pandyan kingdom (9990 BC)
    2. First Deluge (5550 BC)
    3. Second Pandyan kingdom
    4. Second Deluge (1850 BC)
    5. Third Pandyan kingdom
    6. End of Sangam age(1 AD)


    DIVISION OF PANDYAN KINGDOM

    The ancient Pandyan kingdom trifurcated into Chera, Chola and Pandyan kingdoms in Tamilakam.

    THE END OF VILLAVAR KINGDOMS.

    The Chera dynasty was shifted from Kodungaloor to Kollam following the Tulu-Nair invasion who attacked Kerala with the help of Arabs in 1120 AD. After Malik Kafur's attack and defeat of Pandyan kingdom in 1310 AD Villavars were massacred. All Kerala came under the Tulu-Nepalese rule. Nagas from Ahichatram-Nepal Dominated Kerala after 1335 AD. Tamilnadu was occupied by Telugu Balijas and Vanathirayars. The Vanathirayars became the leaders of gangetic Nagas of Tamilnadu. After 1377 AD Kerala and Tamil Nadu were ruled by Bana kings. Kerala and Tamilnadu were dominated by northern Nagas.

    VILLAVAR MIGRATION TO SOUTH

    KERALA
    1. Migration from Kodungaloor to Kollam (1102 AD)
    2. Migration from Kollam to Trivandrum, Kanyakumary and Srilanka (1335 AD)

    TAMILNADU
    1. Migration from Thanjavur to Kalakkad (1310 AD)
    2. Migration from Madurai to Thirunelveli (1310 AD)
    3. Migration from Thirunelveli to Kallidaikurichi and Ambasamudram (1377 AD to 1640 AD)

    VILLAVAR IN THE NORTH INDIA
    Villavar clans
    1. Villavar = Bhil
    2. Malayar
    3. Vanavar = Bana
    4. Meenavar = Meena

    VILLAVAR TITLES AND BANA TITLES
    Villavar =Bhil, Bhillava, Sarangha, Danava
    Malayar=Maleya, Malaya
    Vanavar=Bana, Vanathirayar
    Meenavar=Meena, Matsya
    Nadalvar=Nadava, Nadavara, Nadavaru.
    Nadar=Nador
    Panicker=Panika
    Santar=Santara, Chanda
    Pandiyan=Pandya
    Maveli=Mahabali

    CONCLUSION

    Villavar-Nadar clans belong to an indigenous ancient rulers called Villavar and Bana clans who ruled the whole of India. The decline of Villavar was due to the genocide which followed the Delhi invasion. another reason was exodus of Villavar and Panickar to other counries.

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